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一 CHAPTER ONE – To Learn
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       11.	子曰、父在觀其志、父沒觀其行(一)、三年無改於父之道、可謂孝矣。

學   孔子說:「父親在世時,觀察他的志向。父親去世後,觀察他的行為。父親去世三
而	  年,做兒子的依然沒有改變父親的法度;便可以稱得上孝順。」
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一        (一)	傳統孝道而言,做兒子的必須遵照父親的法度行事。所以當一個人的父親還在

    世時,應該就個人志向作出評價,不應以個人行為作準。

    Confucius said,

    "Note the aspirations of the man during his father's lifetime (1), and the conduct of
    the man after his father's death. If after three years he has not changed his father's
    way, this could be considered filial piety."

          (1) The code of conduct based on filial piety was that a man should act according
             to the wishes of his father. Therefore while his father was alive, a man's true
             character could not be judged by his conduct, only by his aspirations.

12 . 	有子曰、禮(一)之用、和 為貴、先 王(二)之道 斯為 美、小大由之、有所不 行、知 和而和、不以
     禮節之、亦不可行也。

	 有子說:「運用禮儀的時候,以和諧最為可貴。古代帝王之道的好處就在這 ;事無大
     小,都依循這個準則去做。可是也有行不通的時候:如果只知道和諧,便一意和諧,不
     用禮儀來節制,也就行不通了。」

          (一)	孔子提倡的「禮」,即周代(約公元前一一○○至二二一年)制訂的禮節儀
               式,構成當時的社會規範、道德規範。

          (二)	古代政績昭著的君主。

     Yu Tzŭ (1) said,
     "Harmony is the value of performing the rites (2). Such was the beauty of the way
     of emperors past in matters great and small. Yet there are times when this is not
     acceptable. When there is harmony for harmony's sake, undisciplined by the rites, it
     is not acceptable."	

           (1) 	Disciple	
           (2)	Set rules of etiquette, codes of conduct and moral obligations which were

              formalised during the Chou (周) Dynasty (circa 1100-221 B.C.) and advocated
              by Confucius

6 www.confucius.org
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